Statements from Professional Studies
ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration,
and Air Conditioning): "Ozone
controls surface mold on packages and walls, and reduces scale development
and decay. The presence of ozone . . . . significantly reduces the occurrence
Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES): "Ozone
is one of the purest and most powerful oxidants and germicides known."
How Ozone Purifies the
Ozone oxidizes airborne pollutants, then reverts
back to oxygen, transforming polluted air to pure and re-freshened air.
Here is how the process works:
- Oxygen molecules (O1 and O2)
are converted to ozone (O3) by either a high-voltage electrical
charge (such as from lightning), or by ultraviolet light (such as from
the sun rays).
- One oxygen atom (O1) splits off
from the ozone molecule, and reacts with other particles when it comes
within range of a particle and/or pollutant. Ozone is highly reactive,
so it never fails to initiate this reaction with other particles.
- As the 2nd most powerful oxidant in existence,
the single oxygen atom proceeds to "oxidize" the particle it
reacts with. This means it burns the particle, which changes its physical
properties. As a result, the particle will no longer be toxic, and will
no longer be able to reproduce if it is biological. In other words, the
particle becomes completely harmless.
- When the single oxygen (O1) molecule
oxidizes the particle, it too is destroyed. This leaves behind the O2 it
split away from, or pure and clean oxygen.
Effectiveness at Low Levels
In studies conducted at the Academy of Medical
Sciences in Russia, Dr. Gubernskii and Dr. Dmitriev found that 0.005
ppm (parts per million) to 0.02 ppm of ozone added to normal indoor air
(0 ppm) increased animals' resistance to the cold, to infection, to
toxic substances, and to oxygen deprivation. A general increase in
the immune "biological potential" and the vital capacity of
the lungs was reported.
Dr. Gubernskii and Dr. Dmitriev also performed
tests using less than .01 ppm of ozone in an air-conditioned office
building, which revealed that "the levels of oxygen in
the blood increase relatively quickly and remain at a high level for
the duration of the experiment." They also stated that: "Atmospheric
ozone has a positive effect on animals and people. It is important to note
its positive effect on the breathing system, blood composition, arterial
pressure, immune system, general feeling of well-being, and mental and physical
work capability. The ozone-ion complex is a necessary component of fresh
air that gives it a curative effect."
This same study, featured in the Russian journal
Priroda, also reports a decrease in complaints of stuffiness (3.8 times
Russian scientists performed a study to see
how effective ozone was at improving indoor air quality in schools. Respiratory-related
illnesses were drastically improved after the ozone systems were installed.
The ozone concentration produced by the systems were 0.015 ppm (parts per
In testing performed by two scientists by the
name of Elford and Van den Ende, it was found that ozone effectively destroyed
bacteria at 0.04 ppm.
Many publications have published studies showing
the effectiveness of lower concentrations ozone (0.01 to 0.03 ppm) at removing
odors and pollutants. Some of these include the Refrigeration Service
Engineers Society (RSES), U.S. Air Force technical publications, and Manufacturing
Surround Air ionizers produce an ozone concentration
of 0.02 ppm to 0.04 ppm.
Effectiveness against Mold
A 1999 study conducted at the University of
Minnesota found that both ozonated air and water inactivate mold, rendering
the mold cells harmless.
The Refrigeration Service Engineers Society
has reported that electric-arc welders exposed to ozone levels of 0.2 to
0.3 ppm (parts per million) for a decade showed no adverse effects. The Surround
Air Ionizers produce between 0.02 to 0.04 ppm of ozone.
Also, according to the 1961 Encyclopedia
of Chemical Technology, "During the 80-year history of the large
scale usage of ozone, there has never been a human death attributed to
it." To this day, there has still never been a single human death
or incident of harm attributed to ozone.
This despite the fact that ozone was
widely used in hospitals during the first half of the 20th century, and is
still widely used in European hospitals. In addition, millions of ozone air
purification systems are in use worldwide, both commercially and residentially.
By Contrast, well over a million people
are hospitalized, and well over 100,000 are killed every year due to medication
side effects, according to the FDA.
Ozone is completely safe and effective
when occurring within FDA and OSHA standards of 0.05 ppm (parts per
million). In healthy and clean outdoor environments, ozone occurs between
0.02 ppm and 0.05 ppm. Ozone has not been found to be harmful to the
lungs until occurring at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm. However, it is
very difficult (if not impossible) to adjust most ozone air purifiers to
produce anywhere close to this amount of ozone.
In addition, the smell of ozone will become
unpleasant and obnoxious well before reaching harmful levels, serving as
a built-in and self-policing safety mechanism. If this happens, you
know to make an adjustment (i.e. adjust setting of machine, increase air
flow, place in more open/larger area).
However, at proper levels (0.02 ppm to 0.05
ppm), it will have a pleasant and clean smell to it, reminiscent of
the smell outside after a lightening storm.
Ozone Levels with Surround Air Ionizer
The "Surround Air" Ionizer will produce
about 0.02 ppm to 0.03 ppm (parts per million) of ozone, which is well
within the safety standards of 0.05 ppm of the FDA and OSHA. The ozone
concentration of the XJ-2000 "Surround Air" Ionizer purification
system is highly consistent and predictable since it only intends
to produce enough ozone for a single room.
With the "Surround Air" Ionizers,
you will smell the ozone at first, but only barely. After a day or two, you
will either barely smell the ozone, or will not smell it at all, as the pollution
level in the room is minimized.
Many other types of air purifiers produce enough
ozone for multiple rooms, since they are rated to cover large areas
spanning many rooms. However, if this ozone becomes trapped in a smaller
area than what the unit was rated to cover, the ozone level can become too
Copyright © 2001-2002 Indoor Purification Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Reprinted by permission